INTRODUCTION This Digital Multimeter (DMM) is built from off-the-shelf components around an Arduino Nano without the use of a sophisticated front-end ASIC. This blog enables you to build a practical DMM for the everyday use on your bench. But more importantly you’ll get an understanding about the functionality of a DMM, analog to digital conversion,… Read more nanoDMM

FLOPPYmate software

OVERVIEW The FLOPPYmate application is a convenient tool for backing up individual PRG files and/or whole disks, sending DOS commands, as well as checking the drive’s spindle speed. Furthermore the data of a whole track can be displayed as binary and GCR. It’s the answer to how to fast backup and restore 1541, 1571 and… Read more FLOPPYmate software


ICL7106 (LCD) & ICL7107 (LED) Type: 3 1/2 Digit LCD/LED, Single-Chip A/D ConverterADC Architecture: Dual-Slope Used in Keithley 169, Digital Panel Meters ICL 7129 Type: 4 1/2 Digit LCD, Single-Chip A/D ConverterADC Architecture: Successive IntegrationAKA TC129, TLC7129, TLC829 Used in: METEX M-4650UNI-T UT56, UT57ELV LCD 4500 Panelmeter ICL 7135 Type: 4 1/2 Digit BCD Output,… Read more INTEGRATED CIRCUITS FOR MULTIMETERS

Lattice ispGAL & ispLSI

The ispGAL 16Z8 was introduced by Lattice in 1986, one year after introduction of the GAL 16V8. ispGAL, is short for In-System re-Programmable GENERIC ARRAY LOGIC. It is only listed in the 1988 Data Book and was soon replaced by the ispGAL 22V10. The GAL 16V8 is a direct replacement for most 20 pin PALs.… Read more Lattice ispGAL & ispLSI


ABEL™ABEL is a Hardware Description Language (HDL). It features boolean equations, truth tables and state diagrams. An ABEL-HDL design file is the source for the compiler. ACW (Architecture Control Word)Output configurations are controlled by a set of fuses, i.e. programmable ACW cells. The composition of the fuses within the ACW is device specific. Bulk EraseBulk… Read more PLD GLOSSARY

PLD Compilers

PLD Compiler/CAD Company ABEL (Advanced Boolean Expression Language) DATA I/O, SYNARIO, MINC, XILINX, LATTICE ATGEN ACUGEN SOFTWARE Inc. AMAZE SIGNETICS APEEL ICT (PEEL devices) CUPL (Compiler for Universal Programmable Logic) Assisted Technology, Personal CAD Systems (P-CAD), Logical Devices Inc., Altium IspLEVER (Windows) Lattice ISP Synario System (Windows) Lattice, DATA I/O LOG/iC ISDATA, Kontron OPAL, OPAL… Read more PLD Compilers

Floppy Drive Deep Dive

1541 Memory Map 1571 Memory Map 1581 Memory Map ‘Boost Your 1571’ Memory Map DOS sector layout HW Bit Timing Byte Ready Sync Pinout Port A VIA1 Data Register Port B VIA1 Data Register Port B VIA2 Data Register Auxiliary Control Register Peripheral Control Register Interrupt Flag Register Interrupt Enable Register Port A CIA Data… Read more Floppy Drive Deep Dive


INTRODUCTION GALmate is a GAL® multi-platform programmer for electronic hobbyists. A simple RxD/TxD UART interface keeps the connection effort to a minimum. This easy-to-build circuit uses industry standard components. HARDWARE FEATURES SOFTWARE FEATURES LET’S GET STARTED The Basics Starting point: I’d like to realize a (simple) logic design using a reconfigurable (programmable) logic device (PLD).Requirements:… Read more GALmate

GAL hints & more

PITFALLS I/O features: an actual device may or may not have internal pull-ups (ca. 50-100kΩ) or bus-keeper (ATF devices only) Don‘t rely on device marking solely; check for presence/absence of I/O features by using the GALmate read function Clamping: pin voltages >7V may trigger erratic device behavior due to transition into Edit mode or Register… Read more GAL hints & more

GAL specific information

Introduction This information is related to the programming mode of the PLDs listed below. Find more details in the Download section. GAL pinouts for EDIT mode GAL16V8/ATF16V8 GAL20V8/ATF20V8 GAL22V10/ATF22V10 GAL20XV10 GAL20RA10 GAL18V10 GAL26V12C GAL26CV12 GAL6001 GAL6002 GAL/ATF Architecture 16V8 & 20V8 detailed ACW bit information 16V8, 20V8 & 22V10 Row Addresses Map Block Diagram Download… Read more GAL specific information